Read in Chapter 3: the "outstanding preacher of the Great Awakening" and President of the College of New Jersey Jonathan Edwards, the "major force in promoting religious revivalism" George Whitefield, the "most daring and controversial scientific experiment" by Cotton Mather, the "decisive transformation in legal philosophy" in Zenger trial, the "most popular nonreligious literature" colonial almanacs.
Read in Republic of Science about Cadwallader Colden, Benjamin Rush, David Rittenhouse.
The World of Benjamin Franklin from the Franklin Institute has examples of Franklin's accomplishments as a scientist, an inventor, a statesman, a printer, a philosopher, a musician, and an economist.
- Key ideas: reason, progress, natural rights, empiricism
- as Silence Dogood with brother James at Boston Courant 1721
- Cotton Mather promoted innoculation against smallpox tested by Dr. Zabdiel Boylston in Boston 1721
- Pennsylvania Gazette 1729, Poor Richard's Almanac 1732
- published 110 tracts for George Whitefield 1739-41
- Philadelphia booster - progress, perfectibility
- Junto 1727 for "mutual improvement" led to 1743 American Philosophical Society
- Library Co. 1731 for "purposeful reading"
- clerk of the Assembly
- Union Fire Co. 1737 for volunteers, subscribers
- Philadelphia postmaster 1737, for colonies 1753-74; 1st fixed penny rate
- Association for Defense 1747 - "Love your neighbor yet don't pull done your hedge"
- hospital, street cleaning, police watch
- retired from business 1748 - Philadelphia 2nd largest city
- 1750 experiments with Leyden jars, turkeys
- 1751 book Experiments and Observations on Electricity
- 1752 kite experiment - "he snatched the lightning from the sky and the sceptre from tyrants" (Turgot)
- inventor of improved stove, bifocals,
- studied Gulf Stream, soybeans
- was the leader of a growing scientific community in America, see examples at Franklin and His Friends from National Portrait Gallery
- urged colonies to unite at Albany Congress 1754
- to London for PA 1757
- Royal Society, clubs, taverns
- improved the glass armonica in 1761, played by Mozart, Mesmer
- opposed Stamp Act 1766
- used cartoons to persuade public opinion
- returned to Philadelphia May 1775
- served on 10 committees for 2nd Continental Congress
- Committee of Secret Correspondence Nov. 29 -foreign aid, recognition
- Declaration of Independence with Jefferson, Adams - to inform a "candid world"
- Model Treaty of John Adams - trade, not alliance
- "a virgin state should preserve the virgin character and not go about suitoring for alliance" (Franklin)
- Beaumarchais started secret aid through Hortalez Co.
- Congress created Navy Oct. 13, 1776 and authorizes privateering
- "First Salute" (Barbara Tuchman book) at St. Eustatius from Dutch fort on arrival of brig Andrew Dora flying flag of Congress Nov. 16, 1776
- 3 agents sent to Europe: Franklin, Arthur Lee, Silas Deane
History of the Glass Armonica
Franklin and His Friends from National Portrait Gallery
World of Benjamin Franklin on-line exhibit from the Franklin Institute
Franklin portrait at Chateau Ramezay
Historical Maps of the U.S. from Perry-Castaneda Collection at the Univ. of Texas
Map of Explorations in America 1675-1800 from UT (717k)
Map of Territorial Growth 1775 from UT (84k)
Revised 8/15/05 | Class