pictures --->
III. Secession 1860-61

"The great revolution has actually taken place. The country has once and for all thrown off the domination of the slaveholders." (C. F. Adams)
"Ours is not a revolution. We are not engaged in a Quixotic fight for the rights of man; our struggle is for inherited rights." (Jeff Davis)
3 positions in South: immediate secession, unconditional unionists, cooperationists (a question of timing: cooperative secessionism, ultimatism, conditional unionism of Upper South and Alexander Stephens)

A. First Wave

1. Lincoln elected Nov. 6

Nov.7 GA Gov. Joseph E. Brown calls for troops
Nov.10 SC Gov. Wm. Gist calls for a convention

2. Buchanan speech Dec. 3

will "enforce the laws" but not "coerce" any state

3. Lower 7 secede Dec. 20 to Feb. 1 by conventions


4. Federal property seized

Dec. 27 SC took Ft. Moultrie and Pickney in Charleston
Dec. 30 SC takes aresenal in Charleston
Jan. 3 GA takes Ft. Pulaski at Savannah
Gen. David Twiggs surrendered 19 Texas forts

5. Federal property defended

Dec. 26 Maj. Robert Anderson moves to Ft. Sumter
Jan. 5 Anderson surprised by Star of the West with 200 soldiers
Jan. 10 Lt. Adam Slemmer holds Ft. Pickens in Pensacola
Jan. 12 Ft. Taylor in Key West held by federal troops

6. Failure of compromise

Crittenden Compromise for series of constitutional amendments failed Jan. 16
no slavery north of MO line but protected in South, pop. sov., compensation
no Seward "voluntary reconstruction" to admit slavery in NM
"old man's" Peace Convention idea of Tyler and VA failed in DC Feb. 4

B. Confederacy organized

1. Montgomery Feb. 4 - the 1st capital
2. moderates, not fire-eaters like W. Yancey, R. Toombs
3. "The man and the hour have met" Davis elected Feb. 22
4. approved prohibition of slave trade, truce at Ft. Pickens

C. Lincoln's response

1. 1st Inaugural - "hold, occupy and possess" but not invade or attack
2. Gustavus Fox plan Mar. 29 to send relief ship to Ft. Sumter
3. "mission of humanity" Apr. 4

D. Fort Sumter

1. Confederate decision Apr. 9 to attack before mission
2. "You will wantonly strike a hornet's nest"
3. Edmund Ruffin fires 1st shot 4:30 am Apr. 12
4. Anderson surrenders Apr. 13, evacuates Apr. 14
,p. E. Second Wave

1. Lincoln's Proclamation Apr. 15 - insurrection
2. VA 4/17, AR 5/6, TN 5/7, NC 5/20
3. but not the border states DE, MD, KY, MO

revised 2/8/02 by Schoenherr