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V. The First Year

A. First Clashes

1. Border States

a. Harper's Ferry Apr. 18 by Turner Ashby (Confed mobilized fast)
- but Joe Johnston will move to Winchester
[JJ and his Army of the Shenandoah was superior of PGT Beaur]
[JJs men (incl Jacksons) to go to Bull Run by RR July 19-20]
- also Gosport Navy Yard in Norfolk
- same day as 1st troops arrive in DC
- Ringgold Light Artillery from Pa

b. Baltimore Apr. 19 - 6th Mass. 800 attacked by 8000 citizens
- 4 soldiers killed (Luther Ladd 17), 12 civilians
- gangs destroy RR bridges - crucial link S. to DC, W to HpFerry
- Ben Butler (Boston lawyer, pro-Union Democrat)
- Relay House to S. May 1
- occupies Balt. by May 13 - own idea; removed by Scott
- L. had suspended habeas corpus along RR - emerg.

c. Pa RRs Tom Scott repairs track Annapolis to DC - young A. Carnegie
- 1st troop train arrd Apr. 25 - Butlers 8th Mass & 7th NY
- could bring 15,000 per day

d. Alexandria May 24 (S of DC across Potomac)
- Col. Elmer Ellsworth, 24, Zouaves (like French in Crimea)
- Marshall Hs fly confed flag - E. shot by James Jackson, who
was killed by Corp. Francis Brownell (NY Trib Ed. House saw)
- body lay in state in WH May 25 - casket review in NYC
- caused increase in enlistments - esp Zouaves

e. Phillipi June 3
- G. McClellan, 34, apptd 2nd highest general Apr. 23
- Ohio Dept HQ at Wheeling
- Apr. letter to Scott = dagger blow from West with 80,000
- Scott reply to McC = Anaconda Plan (isolate & strangle)
- McC moves May 24 ag. Col. George Porterfield who was raising
a Confed army in W. Va, attacking B&O RR, HQ at Beverly
- Porterfield took up defense at Phillipi, but defeated
- 1st land battle CW (but M. did not pursue; waited for troops)
- McC mountain campaign ag Gen. Robt Graftons 6000
- W. Rosecrans def. John Pegram at Rich Mt. July 11
- RE Lee sent - 3 mos - his 1st command - lost Cheat Mt -
- failed to attack Rosecrans in Kanawha Valley
- Aug. 3 - W VA conven.votes to call constit.conven - admitd '63

f. St. Louis May 10
- Capt. Nath. Lyon (favorite of Frank Blair fam) led Home Guards incl Franz Sigel's Germans vs. Gov. C. Jackson State Militia
- Lyons 7000 stop attack on arsenal - 34 dead, incl child
- Fremont takes command July (but arrogant, lost Blairs support)
- Lyon disobeys - attacks McCulloch at Wilsons Creek Aug 2-10
- very heavy casualties

2. Bull Run

"On to Richmond" demaded Greeley starting June 26
(Davis arrived May 29 from Montgomery)
a. initial strategy of W. Scott = attack flanks while preparing for main thrust in N Va
- western flank = McClellans army
- eastern flank = Butler sent to Fort Monroe (only Union-held pt on peninsula)

b. prelim skirmishes

- Blackburns Ford July 18
- Longstreet learns tactics - impt. of counterattack

c. Beauregard defeats McDowell July 21
- Patterson's failure to hold JJ in Valley of "crucial importance"
- battle had "a profound impact on the country" - inferiority complex

3. Ball's Bluff
- N. Evans defeats Col. Ed. Baker Oct. 21
- Republicans in Congress blame McClellan & Stone

B. Blockade - part 2


revised 2/20/02 by Schoenherr | Civil War