VIII. Turning Point - 1863
Phase 1 - Dec. 1862
- Grant plan to march south overland and link up with Sherman who would be transported by Porter to Chickasaw Bluffs - but disrupted by Van Dorn and Forrest
- Grant's order expelling Jews from Dept. of Miss. - to stop cotton black market
- but order cancelled by L. - Cesar Kaskel and Jewish Unionists
Phase 2 - Dec-Mar. 1863
- Grant tries 5 bypass routes - Yazoo Pass, Steele's bayou exped.
Phase 3 - Apr. - "success in the spring"
- McClernand starts south from Milliken Bend Apr. 5
- Porter's gunboats run batteries Apr. 16
- Ben Grierson starts cavalry raid thru MI Apr. 17 - diversion
- Grant's army 35 mi. south at Bruinsburg
- Grant "cut loose" from Port Gibson May 7
- Grant defeats Pemberton at Champion's Hill May 16, "the most decisive of the campaign"
- Sherman to Jackson vs. Joe Johnston's 30,000
Phase 4 -siege of Vicksburg May 18 to July 4
- assualts May 19, 22
- huge mine exploded June 25
- 30,000 surrender and paroled
- Jackson, MI evacuated - Johnston abandons central Miss. July 16
- Port Hudson - Banks and Farragut close the Miss. R. May 23-July 8
B. Lee's Pennsylvania Invasion
1. CD-ROM "12 Roads to Gettysburg"
- simple yet extremely daring - to seek a decisive battle
- PA, Army or the Potomac, Phil., Balt., even N.Y.
- help Copperheads, overthrow Lincoln, relieve West
- Lee's plan a gamble, but "several proven quantities"
- 7-step plan begins in June 1863 - 3 corps move
2. Prelude to the Decisive Battle
- Stuart vs. Pleasonton at Brandy Station June 9
- Winchester taken by Ewell June 14
- Lee orders Stuart to pass around Hooker June 23,
but loses contact & unaware of Union movements
- Early reaches Gettysburg without shoes June 26
- Ewell takes Carlisle, camps 4 mi. from capital June 27
- George Meade replaces Hooker June 28
- Buford arrives June 30 - Heth withdraws
3. Gettysburg July 1-3
- "most crucial battle in American history"
- Day 1 = the north side
- Ewell stops his advance - fears artillery
- Day 2 = the south side
- Longstreet stopped by Sickles
- Day 3 = the center
- Pickett's Charge stopped by Hancock
- war's biggest artillery duel by 343 guns 1-2:30 pm
- "the war's most famous charge" by Pickett at 2:30 pm
- 13,000 into Hancock's artillery enfilade
- Lee retreats to Williamsport - builds bridge by July 13
- Lincoln angry at Meade - "We had them in our grasp"
- Ted Turner movie Gettysburg based on Michael Sharra novel
C. Significance in 1863
- End of Southern Offensive
- Lee's "audacity" failed to win the war
- Meade's caution failed to win the war
- Copperhead influence declined
- Clement Valandigham arrested by Burnside May 5, banished by Lincoln
- National Union Leagues of Republicans and Loyal Leagues of Democrats won spring elections in New England (NH, CT) helped by soldiers furloughed home
- backlash against Peace Democrats like Gov. Horatio Seymour ("my friends") who were blamed for causing the draft riots in New York
- Blacks recruited into the military
- Lincoln's July 30 order threatened retaliation for execution of black captives
- CSA did not exchange black prisoners, casued overcrowding
- 58 black regiments by Oct., but only a few commissioned officers,
- Black soldiers fought at Port Hudson May 27, and Milliken's Bend June 9, but most black soldiers remained on garrison duty, suffered from lack of medical care, disease.
- Volunteers increased
- due to threat of conscription after Enrollment Act of march 3
- Almost 1 million enlisted in two years of the draft, only 46,000 were drafted
- 24% were foreign-born, 9% were black, 47% were farmers, 41% were laborers
- Emancipation confirmed
- Republicans won state elections in OH, PA
- 92% soliders voted for Republicans
- growing respect for abolitionist leaders
- Confederacy divided
- Davis challenged by Gov. Joseph Brown, Robert Toombs, Alexander Stephens
- Martial Law proclamation did not work, allowed to expire, courts released deserters and officials unable to enforce conscription
- South lacked political parties, encouraged factionalism
- William Holden of NC led growing peace movement
- Gettysburg Address
- delivered by Lincoln Nov. 19 to dedicate the National Soldiers Cemetery, from 2:00 to 2:03 pm, in 10 sentences, 272 words
- two drafts written by Lincoln, not on the back of any envelope
- crowd of 15,000 clearly heard his voice, were not bored even though Edward Everett had taken almost 2 hours to deliver his "Dedicatory Remarks"
- Democratic press hostile, but general popular reaction was positive
- emphasis on the word "Nation" used 4 times, not word "Union" (that had been used 20 times in Lincoln's 1861 First Inaugural Address)
- emphasis on creation of a new nation, a "new birth of freedom"
- Images of Reality
- "Sharpshooter at Devil's Den" wet collodion glass plate by Timothy O'Sullivan July 6
- ambrotype found of "children of the battlefield" - engravings, poems, sheet music sold - Sgt Amos Humiston of 154th New York - donations and proceeds helped found the Soldiers' Orphans' Home 1866
1. Tullahoma Campaign
- Rosy finally moves on Bragg at Tullahoma June 24 - constant rain
- led by John Wilder with 7-shot Spencers thru Hoover's Gap
- 9-day campaign - Tullahoma taken July 3 - Tennessee liberated
- Rosy with 3 corps starts from Tullahoma Aug. 16
- Bragg retreats - Longstreet from VA by railroad via Atlanta
- Burnside takes Knoxville Sept. 3
- Rosy stopped at Chickamauga Sept. 19-20
- "last Confed. victory" - L. said Rosy was "stunned and confused, like a duck hit on the head."
- Longstreet took charge Sept. 20 - "Bull of the Woods" - his greatest achievement
- George Thomas stopped Longstreet and became the "Rock of Chickamauga" but his troops would remember their defeat and seek vengeance
- Bragg's mistake - did not pursue - withdrew from Chatt. Sept. 7
- Bragg sets trap at McLemore's Cove - "red with blood"
- Joe Wheeler cuts Union supply line - 1000 mules
- Davis arrives Oct. 9
- Longstreet sent to Knoxville
- Sherman and Hooker reinforce Rosy in "the most impressive logistic achievement of the war"
3. Grant at Chattanooga
- Grant commands all west Oct. 17
- Moccasin Pt. to Browns Ferry to Kellys Ferry to Bridgeport Oct. 23
- pontoon bridge at Browns Ferry Oct. 26
- Cracker Line opened to bypass Lookout Mt. Oct. 27
- Thomas storms Missionary Ridge Nov. 25 in "one of the most remarkable feats of the war"
- Hooker wins Battle Above the Clouds Nov. 24
revised 3/18/02 | Class Page