XIII. The Last Year - 1865
A. End of the Confederacy
- 13th amendment ratified by all states except NJ, KY, DE
- Desertion became "epidemic" - CSA 12.2%, Union 9.6%
- "our cause was hopeless" - decline of southern morale
- Fort Fisher Jan 15 and occupation of Wilmington Feb. 22
- Hampton Roads peace conference Feb. 3 - Alex. Stephens
- no "prospective ratification" - instead to be "true and righteous"
- Carolina campaign - "stunning" logistics - Salk swamps
- Charleston's fall Feb. 18 "most dramatic sign of the Confederacy's collapse"
- Columbia burned Feb. 17
- Johnston defeated at Bentonville, NC Mar. 19 - map
- Mobile campaign by Edward Canby - also Pensacola
- James Wilson raid to Selma was "largest, longest, and most destructive cavalry raid of the war" - defeated N.B. Forrest 6 times - captured Jeff Davis at Irwinsville, GA - the South was "not only invaded and conquered, it was utterly destroyed"
- Lee persuded CSA to enlist black soldiers Mar. 13, but no freedom
- Fort Stedman Mar. 25 - Lee "gambled on one last assault"
- Grant turned Lee's right flank with Sheridan at Five Forks Apr. 1
- Lee retreated westward to Appomatox but cut off at Sayler's Creek Apr. 6 and at Appomattox Station Apr. 8
- Lee surrendered to Grant in the parlor of the Wilbur McLean House at Appomattox Couthouse at 3 pm on Palm Sunday, Apr. 9 - Grant allowed Lee's request that his men keep horses or mules "to put in a crop" - 1
B. Final Campaigns
- Johnston surrendered to Sherman at Bennett Place, NC Apr. 26
- Memo of Apr. 18 - very liberal terms to South - (James Reston = atonement)
- Sherman's "Savannah Plan" - reservations for blacks
- Stanton led Cabinet opposition - new terms signed Apr. 26
- Sultana disaster Apr. 27 near Memphis - 1238 POWs killed in boiler explosion
- Col. John RIP Ford defeats Union at Palmito Ranch, Texas May 13
- last land battle of Civil War
- CSA raider Stonewall surrendered at Havana May 19 - last ship
- Kirby Smith surrendered June 2 at Galveston
- accepted May 26 terms of the surrender of Army of Trans-Miss.
- Jo Shelby refused - led Confederate force to Mexico for 2 years
- Wm Quantrill wounded in Kentucky May and died June 6
- Stand Watie surrendered at Doaksville June 23
C. Assassination of Lincoln
Oct. 1864 - Booth in Montreal - began 6-month plot
- met Jacob Thompson, John Surratt
Nov. 1864 - Booth at Mary Surratt's boardinghouse
- Sam Arnold, Ed Spangler, Mike O'Laughlin
- Lewis Powell, David Herold, George Atzerodt
- Dr. Samuel Mudd, Louis Weichman
Mar. 17 - kidnap attempt aborted
Mar. 23 - Lincoln trip to Richmond - Mary quarrelled with Julia Grant
Apr. 11 - Lincoln's last reconstruction speech outraged Booth
Apr. 14 - Cabinet meeting
- 8:10 pm Lincoln went to Ford's Theater without Grant
- 10:30 pm Booth entered box past Parker, slashed Rathbone,
- shot Lincoln, shouted "Sic Semper Tyrannis!"
- 10:30 pm Powell attempted to knife Seward
- Ford's Theater exhibit
Apr. 15 - Lincoln died at 7:22 am. - Lafayette Baker began search for Booth
Apr. 20 - Stanton distributed $100,000 photo reward posters
Apr. 24 - Booth shot and killed at Garrett barn by Boston Corbett
May 2 - Pres. Johnson proclaimed "Grand Conspiracy" of J. Davis
May 9 - military trial began of 8 defendants - all found guilty
June 30 - Mary Surratt, David Herold, Lewis Paine, George Atzerodt sentenced to hang on July 7 - Alexander Gardner photos taken on ironclads Saugus and Montauk - Lewis Paine and David Herold and hanging
1867 - trial of John Surratt - Baker told of Booth's diary missing 18 pages
1869 - Booth's body re-buried in Baltimore
1937 - Otto Eisenschiml published WHY WAS LINCOLN MURDERED?
1977 - Sunn Classic film THE LINCOLN CONSPIRACY blamed Stanton
1983 - William Hanchett LINCOLN MURDER CONSPIRACIES debunked Otto
1991 - Unsolved Mysteries claimed Booth was 1903 "Enid Mummy"
East maps of Wilderness and James and Cold Harbor and Petersburg and Petersburg 1864 and Eastern U.S. and DC
South Maps of Sherman's March
Campaign to Atlanta and Battles for Atlanta and Sherman's March
LC map of Appomattox Court House and vicinity and bg and vbg and b and vert and c and bg
LC map of Potomac and Sherman's March and bg and west and bg and east and bg and Mobile and Chat. to Atlanta and Savannah and Milledgeville and e and f and g
- Reston, Jr., James. Sherman's March and Vietnam. New York: Macmillan, 1984. 323 p.
- Winik, Jay. April 1865: The Month That Saved America. New York: HarperCollins, 2001. 461 p.