Revolutionary Cyclone

Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Hungary, Poland, Weimar Republic, British Labor Party, Gandhi's National Congress, China May 4 Movement, Hussein's Great Revolt, Balfour Declaration were part of a revolutionary cyclone

Bolshevik Revolution

Lenin - reserve

U.S. Response

  1. military intervention
    • July 6 - Wilson decided to intervene with 5000 troops at Murmansk (July to Nov. 1918 to help Allied army and White leaders Denikin and Kolchak) and 9000 troops at Vladivostok (Aug. 1918 to Apr. 1920 to help Czech Legion, keep railroad open, stop Japanese expansion)
    • July 16 - Romanov imperial family killed in Ekaterinburg as Czech Legion approached to control Trans-Siberian Railroad.

  2. help socialist parties resist communism
    • Dec, 30, 1918 - German Communist party formed, but Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht shot by Social Democrats after failed Jan. 1919 uprising
    • Jan. 1919 - William Bullitt planned to participate in International Labor and Socialist Conference at Berne
    • Mar. 2, 1919 - Third International Comintern created to take over leadership of socialist movements in Europe and to export Bolshevism
    • Sept. 1919 - John Reed returned to Russia after writing his Ten Days That Shook the World, was elected to the Executive Committee of the Second Comintern Congress, but died of typhus Oct. 17 and was buried in the Kremlin.
    • Red Scare in U.S. following the end of the war stiffens resistence to cooperation with any kind of socialism or communism - Seattle general strike in Jan. 1919 - Attorney-General A. Mitchell Palmer home bombed in June - Boston police strike and national steel strike in Sept. - House refused to seat Milwaukee socialist Victor Berger elected in Nov. - Palmer raids in Jan. 1920 arrested 3000 in 33 cities and deported 550, including Emma Goldman

  3. Coalition government
    • Feb. 4, 1919 - Lenin accepted plan of David Lloyd George for conference at Prinkipo of all factions in the Russian Civil War, to establish a coalition government.
      Mar. 12 - Lenin told Bullitt he will agree to an armistice and mediation. However, other factions did not attend.

  4. food relief
    • American Relief Administration created by Herbert Hoover Nov. 1918 with $100m from Congress to provide food and medicine to war-torn Europe
    • Mar. 21, 1919 - Bela Kun communist regime in Hungary - the "red terror"
    • Mar. 26 - Herbert Hoover stopped food relief to Hungary July 24 to topple Bela Kun, who was replaced by Admiral Hortly's "whte terror" Aug. 1
    • Mar. 17, 1921 - Lenin announced New Economic Policy - no more confiscation of food from peasants; some small private land plots allowed to grow food; trade with capitalist nations allowed to ease terrible faminie in Russia
    • Aug. 20, 1921 - Riga Agreement - ARA given full access to Russia, free transportation, release of all POWs in return for food and medical supplies - aid given throughout Russia until 1923

  5. nonrecognition
    • Aug. 10, 1920 - Colby note - nonrecognition to be official U.S. policy until 1933

  6. unofficial trade
    • Armand Hammer (1898-1990) became the first American to open trade with communist Russia
    • physician father Julius joined Daniel DeLeon's Socialist Labor Party, and in 1919 the American Communist Party - was friends with Ludwig Martens of Bolshevik mission to the U.S.
    • Armand ran Allied Drug for father while attending medical school 1917-1921 - sold alcoholic tincture of ginger during prohibition
    • June 1921 - took $100,000 field hospital to Russia as gift to Bolsheviks
    • Aug. - joined Ludwig Martens' railroad expedition to Ural Mts. - saw rich deposits of asbestos, platinum, copper, emeralds - took advantage of Lenin's new NEP to apply for trade from the Concessions Committee - was 1st American to receive a concession, to export asbestos - signed contracts with 37 U.S. companies to become their Russian representative through the new Alamerico (Allied American Company) - made deals with Commisar of Trade Anastas Mikoyan - helped American anarchist William Shatoff become president of new Industrial Bank of Rostov - Hammer built pencil factory and exported Russian art, furs, imitation Faberge eggs
    • Jan. 21, 1924 - death of Lenin
    • 1925 - rise of Stalin - created Amtorg Trading Co. as state-owned enterpreise to take back trade business from foreign concessions
    • 1929 - Ford built auto factory in Russia
    • 1930 - Hammer returned to U.S. after 9 years in Russia


revised 11/1/06 by Schoenherr | WWI Timeline | Links | Topics | Maps | Reserve