"Manifest Destiny" was name given in 1845 by newspaper editor John L. O'Sullivan to an "upsurge of emotion" that began in the 1820's and crested in the 1844 campaign, a "crusade" involving expansion, slavery, trade, politics, religion, as "Young America" made the "eagle scream" and "buffalo bellow" in antebellum America, a "go-head nation" driven by "go-ahead people" and symbolized by the locomotive and the telegraph. John Quincy Adams in 1825 believed in "westward the course of empire" but boundaries should be first defined by treaty. However, new beliefs arose after 1825 as expressed by T. Benton, H. Kelley, S. Houston, H. Fitch, C. Wilkes, H. Bingham, J. Polk.
- "Paths of Empire"
- Jedediah Smith, Thomas Hart Benton, John C. Fremont
- "Oregon Fever"
- Jason Lee, Marcus Whitman, Champoeg
- "Bowie Knife"
- Stephen Austin, Ben Milam, Sam Houston
- "Gateways to Empire"
- Bryant & Sturgis, Mariano Vallejo, Henry Fitch
- "Maritime Frontier"
- Charles Wilkes, James Dana, King Tanoa
- "Christian Panoply"
- Samuel Worcester, Elias Derby, Hiram Bingham